Gabapentinoid products include gabapentin, which is marketed under the name Neurontin and Gralise, as well as generics; gabapentin enacarbil, a prodrug of gabapentin which is marketed as Horizant; and pregabalin, which is marketed as Lyrica and Lyrica CR, as well as generics.

Gabapentinoids are approved for the treatment of epilepsy, postherpetic neuralgia, neuropathic pain associated with diabetic neuropathy, fibromyalgia, generalized anxiety disorder, and restless legs syndrome. Some off-label uses of gabapentinoids include the treatment of insomnia, migraine, social phobia, panic disorder, mania, bipolar disorder, and alcohol withdrawal. Existing evidence on the use of gabapentinoids in chronic lower back pain is limited, and demonstrates significant risk of adverse effects, without any demonstrated benefit.

December 2019 FDA Notice:

“With the evolution of the opioid crisis, getting ahead of new concerns or addressing those that are already evident requires examining signs of misuse and abuse as soon as any signal emerges.

“Reports of gabapentinoid abuse alone, and with opioids, have emerged and there are serious consequences of this co-use, including respiratory depression and increased risk of opioid overdose death.

“In response to these concerns, we are requiring updates to labeling of gabapentinoids to include new warnings of potential respiratory depressant effects. We are also requiring the drug manufacturers to conduct clinical trials to further evaluate the abuse potential of gabapentinoids, particularly in combination with opioids, with special attention being given to assessing the respiratory depressant effects.

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