Etizolam (marketed under many brand names) is a thienodiazepine derivative which is a benzodiazepine analog.

Etizolam is a drug of potential misuse. Cases of etizolam dependence have been documented in the medical literature.  Since 1991, cases of etizolam misuse and addiction have substantially increased, due to varying levels of accessibility and cultural popularity.  Pills being sold as Xanax or other benzodiazepines that are illicitly manufactured may often contain etizolam rather than their listed ingredient.

Etizolam is not authorized by the FDA for medical use in the U.S. However, it currently remains unscheduled at the federal level and is legal for research purposes as of March 2020.  As of March 2016, etizolam is a controlled substance in the following states: Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia (as Schedule IV, whereas all other states listed here prohibit it as a Schedule I substance), Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas, South Carolina, and Virginia. It is controlled in Indiana as of July 1, 2017.  It is controlled in Ohio as of February 2018.

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